The Proof of Global Warming


In this controversy, scientific evidence falls into two categories: direct measurements (which began with the invention then distribution of inexpensive accurate thermometers in the mid 1860s) and proxy measurements.

  1. Direct measurements require little interpretation provided you understand a small amount of science.
  2. Proxy measurements require quite a bit of interpretation (because they cross many scientific disciplines -and- are spotty so do not necessarily represent world wide events) and so should only be left to the experts in the court of 'peer reviewed' science.

Proof 1: Sea Level Rise

  • Since the economies of seafaring nations was tied to ocean-based commerce, their respective navies began collecting oceanic statistics which included the rise and fall of tides by the use of "tide gauges". An unexpected observation was that sea levels were (on average) always rising over time.
  • Western countries been launching weather satellites with down-looking RADAR starting in the early 1990s
  • Comments:
    • In physics
      • "distance over time" is labelled velocity.
      • An increasing velocity is known as acceleration.
    • Since the rate-of-rise (velocity) is increasing then it can be said that sea level rise is accelerating (way worse than just saying it is rising)
    • Ignoring acceleration for a moment, let's assume a steady velocity of 3.9 mm per year. Simple math shows that the absolute minimum rise over the next 100 years will be 390 mm (39 cm or 15.3 inches) higher than now.
    • Note that sea level is measured vertically. Since most shore lines and beaches are angled like ramps, high tides and storm surges will do more damage sooner.
    • The sea level observation alone usually induces rational skeptics to change their point of view into the direction of concern.

Direct Measurements:

Indirect Measurements:


  • melting glaciers as well as melting polar ice are the primary contributors to level rise
  • since warmer water occupies a slightly larger volume then warming also contributes to sea level rise (e.g. the rise will continue after all the ice is melted)
  • Earth is still coming out of the ice-age that ended 11,700 years ago so some of this warming/melting is natural. However, unlike the past half-dozen ice-ages, this one happened during a time when the human population exceeded 1 billion which enabled the CO2-releasing industrial age. The current human population now exceeds 7.9 billion (as of Oct-2021)

Proof 2: This inter-glacial is different

co2 across the ice ages
  • Homo sapiens, the current human form, did not exist a bit more than 200-300 thousand years ago which means that no one was present to do direct measurements. This means that indirect measurements are all we have available to us.
  • What humanity knows about previous glacial periods (ice ages) comes from ice cores extracted in places like Antarctica and Greenland
  • While there are no hard-and-fast rules about this stuff, ice ages happen every 120 thousand years when CO2 levels fall below 230 ppm (the chart to the right shows 7.5 such cycles.
  • However, this chart as well as others has convinced scientists that the normal variation swings, on average, between 180 ppm and 280 ppm.
  • Notice that the current inter-glacial has CO2 numbers more than 100 ppm above 280 ppm.
  • The reason for this is that the current inter-glacial has enabled a human population explosion which enabled an industrial revolution

Proof 3: CO2 is rising while Oxygen is falling

CO2 vs O2 (chart only goes to 2005)
  1. Average global temperatures have risen 1.05 C (1.9 F) degrees since broad measurements began in 1880
    Direct Measurement: and
  2. CO2 levels have risen 27% since annual measurements began in 1958
    Direct Measurement: (most recent CO2 data)
    Computed Rate of Increase: ((412-315) / (2019-1958)) = (97 / 61) = 1.59 ppm per year
  3. Oxygen levels have fallen (695-103) = 592 per meg since annual measurements began in 1990
    Direct Measurement: (data sets are freely available for download )
    Analysis: Comments:
    1. Since O2 production by non-animal life is not able to compensate for all the "unnatural" fossil fuel burning by humanity, it appears that our biosphere is slowly dying.
    2. Most people forget that our machines (cars, trucks, boats, planes, tanks, etc) also breathe in oxygen while exhaling carbon dioxide


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Neil Rieck
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.